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Information on how to stay safe and healthy abroad. About us.

  • Disease Prevention Advice

Tick-borne Encephalitis


  • Recommendations


Overview of disease, the illness.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infection spread mainly through tick bites. It can cause a flu-like illness or lead to more severe symptoms such as meningitis or brain inflammation.

Recommendations for Travellers

If you are planning to spend long periods of time outdoors in forests or rural areas of countries where TBE infection is common, you should be aware of how to avoid tick bites .

The most effective way to prevent infection is by having the TBE vaccine , particularly if you are planning to do outdoor activities such as walking, hiking, camping, cycling, fishing orienteering or running in rural or forested areas.

When travelling in high risk areas, you should inspect your whole body daily for ticks, particularly after outdoor activities. Ticks should be removed as early as possible.

  • See the insect bite avoidance page for advice on how to safely remove ticks.

The vaccine available in the UK against TBE is called TicoVac. There is a vaccine called TicoVac junior available for children.

The vaccination course consists of three doses (injections) of vaccine.

  • You should aim to have the first injection at least one month before you travel.
  • You will need at least 2 doses to provide you with adequate protection for your trip.
  • A third injection will offer you protection for about 3 years.

You can find out more information about each of these vaccines from the patient information leaflets supplied by the manufacturer:

  • Patient Information Leaflet (PIL) for TicoVac
  • Patient Information Leaflet (PIL) for TicoVac junior

TBE is a viral infection that can affect the brain and central nervous system. It is transmitted to humans from infected tick bites. Occasionally, you can become infected by drinking unpasteurised milk from infected animals, especially goats.

The ticks that transmit TBE can be found in Europe and parts of Russia, China, Japan and South Korea. TBE transmission occurs during 'tick season' which runs from late spring until early autumn. Not all ticks are infected with TBE.

Most human infections are contracted during outdoor leisure activities such as forestry working, camping, rambling and mountain biking during tick season.

Most people infected with TBE won’t experience any symptoms.

Some people will develop a high temperature (fever) and flu-like symptoms (such as feeling hot and shivery, headaches, aching muscles or feeling sick) which will last for around a week.

A small number of people who appear to have recovered from the flu-like illness will go on to develop more serious symptoms several days later. These symptoms might include a very high temperature (fever) and neurological symptoms (for example severe headache, neck stiffness, seizure (fit), sudden confusion, or weakness or loss of movement in parts of the body).

  • If you, or someone you know, experiences any of these symptoms during or after travel to a region where TBE exists, you should seek urgent medical assistance.

Those who experience severe disease might develop permanent neurological damage. About 1 in every 100 patients will die from TBE.

There is no specific treatment available for TBE.

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Understanding FIT in the Travel Industry

Welcome to our comprehensive guide to understanding the term FIT in the travel industry. In this article, we will delve into the meaning of FIT, its significance, and how it impacts the travel sector.

What is FIT?

FIT stands for Free Independent Traveler or Free Independent Tourist. It refers to a type of travel arrangement where individuals or small groups plan their trips independently without the help of a traditional tour operator. FIT travelers have the freedom to customize their itineraries, choose their accommodations, and select their preferred modes of transportation.

Characteristics of FIT Travelers

  • Prefer flexibility and autonomy in their travel plans
  • Seek authentic and personalized travel experiences
  • Enjoy exploring destinations at their own pace
  • May have specific interests or hobbies they wish to pursue during their trips
  • Value convenience and efficiency in travel arrangements

Key Elements of FIT Travel

When planning FIT travel, individuals or groups typically focus on the following key elements:

  • Transportation: FIT travelers have the flexibility to choose their modes of transportation, whether it's by air, train, car rental, or other means.
  • Accommodation: They can select the type of lodging that suits their preferences and budget, ranging from hotels and resorts to vacation rentals and boutique accommodations.
  • Activities: FIT travelers can design their itineraries based on their interests, whether it's exploring cultural sites, engaging in outdoor adventures, or enjoying culinary experiences.
  • Dining: They have the freedom to dine at local restaurants, street food stalls, or upscale eateries based on their culinary preferences.
  • Sightseeing: FIT travelers can visit popular attractions, off-the-beaten-path locations, or hidden gems according to their preferences.

Advantages of FIT Travel

There are several advantages to choosing FIT travel over traditional group tours:

  • Freedom to create a personalized itinerary
  • Flexibility to make last-minute changes to travel plans
  • Ability to explore destinations at your own pace
  • Opportunity to immerse yourself in local cultures and communities
  • Customization of travel experiences based on individual preferences

Challenges of FIT Travel

While FIT travel offers numerous benefits, there are also some challenges to consider:

  • Need for extensive research and planning
  • Responsibility for making all travel arrangements
  • Potential language barriers in foreign destinations
  • Higher costs compared to packaged tours in some cases
  • Lack of group dynamics and social interactions

Impact of FIT on the Travel Industry

FIT travel has significantly influenced the travel industry in various ways:

  • Increased demand for personalized travel experiences
  • Growth of online booking platforms and travel apps
  • Diversification of accommodation options to cater to individual preferences
  • Expansion of experiential tourism offerings, such as cultural immersions and adventure activities
  • Development of niche travel services targeting specific interests and demographics

In conclusion, FIT travel has emerged as a popular choice for individuals and small groups seeking personalized and authentic travel experiences. By offering flexibility, autonomy, and customization, FIT travel has transformed the way people explore destinations and engage with different cultures. While there are challenges associated with independent travel planning, the benefits often outweigh the drawbacks, making FIT an attractive option for modern travelers.

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What is FIT And GIT in The Tourism

by Hammad Ur Rehman | Oct 8, 2021 | Travel Guide | 7 comments

What is FIT And GIT in The Tourism

In the tourism industry, some travel terms can be a little bit confusing for tourists. For instance, FIT and GIT in tourism are such travel terms that people are mostly confused about. It is important to understand what FIT and GIT in tourism mean to avoid any future problems during your travel.

FIT (free independent traveler) definition:

FIT in tourism is an acronym for Free Independent Travelers. They are people who travel independently without being a part of any tour group. This type of tourism offers travelers an opportunity to travel on their own. As a free independent traveler, you travel without a tour operator and choose your accommodation, transportation, and other parts of your trip. You might take an organized package tour, but it is just you – not a group.

Examples of FIT Tour – Some examples of free independent travel are trekking, backpacking, bicycling, camping tourism, motorcycle touring, yacht traveling, etc.

GIT (Group Inclusive Tour) definition:

In GIT, you join other tourists for a Group Inclusive Tour and don’t have to worry about your accommodation, transportation, and other parts of your trip. A group of a minimum of 10 people travels together. These people can be related or non-related and usually book on the same travel arrangements. The group size is not defined by the number of travelers but by the size of accommodation reserved.

An important condition is that some people are responsible for the whole group, so it is possible to determine who will be the guide and travel organizer.

Examples of GIT Tour – Some examples of GIT are family tours, group tours to a monastery or a sightseeing place, etc.

FIT and GIT in the Tourism – Detailed Guide

Fit and git in the tour packages.

When you book a tour package, you should know what FIT and GIT mean. FIT is not defined in the package, which means that you will be traveling on your own. You are responsible for arranging all your travel arrangements – you will have to make reservations yourself. If you choose FIT, it also means that there are no refunds for any missed flights or accommodation bookings.

GIT is called a group inclusive tour, which means that you will travel with other tourists. When it comes to GIT, many different companies offer completely different conditions. The tour can be booked by 20 people or 50 people – the company decides how big the group should be. There is usually one organizing person in charge of the group size. This person has to ensure that all members are properly booked.


Actually, it depends on your travel style. If you are not the type of person who is happy to travel with other tourists, FIT is perfect. However, if you don’t mind traveling with other people and you want everything to be arranged for you, GIT is the best choice.

Difference Between a FIT and GIT Package Tour

FIT and GIT package tours are different from many points of view, but the main difference comes from the number of people on a group tour.

Here are some main differences:

FIT Package:

  • This is suitable for a small number of people like couples or friends.
  • You have to be a free independent traveler who has the experience of traveling alone in different countries.
  • This is more secure and reliable for international travelers because all attention will be paid by the operator.
  • You will be provided with better accommodation and food facilities since there are fewer people in the group. This means you won’t have to share your room, dinner table or bathroom with other guests.
  • You also get one carrier instead of sharing it among many members of the group.
  • It also costs more than the GIT package.

GIT Package:

  • This is suitable for a large number of people like family or students / young people who are looking for adventure at a lower cost.
  • You will have to share your room with other guests, dinner table, tour carrier etc. Plus, you also do not have much freedom as you are not a free independent traveler.
  • You can get more facilities at a cheap rate than FIT Package tours.
  • You will have to share your tour carrier with other people in the group.
  • The rate depends on the size of the group.
  • It is more suitable for families, and students who want to have fun with other members of the group.

Is There Any Other Type Of Tour Package In Tourism?

Yes, besides FIT and GIT, there is also IIT(Independent inclusive tour), which is also quite popular in tourism industry.

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What Does FIT Stand For in Travel? (The Ultimate Guide)


What Does FIT Stand For in Travel?

When you’re planning a trip, you have a lot of decisions to make. Where will you go? What will you do? How much will it cost? And if you’re traveling with a group, how will you coordinate your plans?

If you’re looking for a more personalized travel experience, you might want to consider a FIT trip. FIT stands for “fully independent travel,” and it means that you’re in charge of planning and booking your own trip. This gives you the freedom to choose your own destinations, activities, and accommodations, and it can be a great way to save money.

But what exactly does it mean to plan a FIT trip? And how do you get started? In this article, we’ll take a closer look at FIT travel, and we’ll provide you with some tips on how to plan your own successful trip.

We’ll cover topics such as:

  • What are the benefits of FIT travel?
  • How to research destinations and activities
  • How to book flights, hotels, and transportation
  • How to stay safe and secure on your trip

By the end of this article, you’ll have a better understanding of what FIT travel is all about, and you’ll be well on your way to planning your own amazing adventure.

| Column 1 | Column 2 | Column 3 | |—|—|—| | What Does FIT Stand For In Travel? | FIT stands for F ree I ndividual T raveler. | FIT travelers are independent travelers who book their own travel arrangements, including flights, hotels, and other activities. | | Benefits of FIT Travel | * Flexibility: FIT travelers can choose their own destinations, dates, and activities.

  • Control: FIT travelers have more control over their travel experience, including their budget and itinerary.
  • Authenticity: FIT travelers can get a more authentic experience by interacting with local people and cultures. |

| Drawbacks of FIT Travel | * Cost: FIT travel can be more expensive than package tours, especially if you book your own flights and hotels.

  • Risk: FIT travelers are responsible for their own safety and security.

FIT travel, which stands for “free independent traveler,” is a type of travel in which the traveler plans and organizes their own trip. This is in contrast to traditional package tours, which are arranged and sold by a travel agent. FIT travelers typically have more control over their itinerary, budget, and accommodations than those who take package tours.

What is FIT travel?

FIT travel can take many forms, from a simple weekend getaway to a multi-month around-the-world adventure. Some of the most common types of FIT travel include:

  • Self-drive vacations: In a self-drive vacation, the traveler rents a car and drives themselves to their destinations. This type of travel is popular for those who want to explore the countryside and have the freedom to stop and go as they please.
  • Rail travel: Rail travel is a great way to see a lot of different places in a short amount of time. There are many different rail passes available, which can save travelers money on their tickets.
  • Flight-inclusive packages: Flight-inclusive packages include airfare, hotel, and sometimes other travel-related expenses. This type of package can be a good option for those who want to book a trip without having to worry about the details.
  • Customized tours: Customized tours are designed specifically for the individual traveler. The itinerary, accommodations, and activities are all tailored to the traveler’s interests and budget.

History of FIT travel

FIT travel has been around for centuries, but it wasn’t until the 1960s that it became a popular option for travelers. This was due to a number of factors, including the rise of mass air travel, the increasing availability of affordable accommodations, and the growth of the internet.

In the early days of FIT travel, travelers had to do a lot of research and planning on their own. They had to find their own flights, book their own hotels, and arrange their own transportation. Today, there are many resources available to help FIT travelers plan their trips, including travel websites, guidebooks, and travel agents.

Benefits of FIT travel

There are many benefits to FIT travel, including:

  • Flexibility: FIT travelers have the freedom to choose their own destinations, itineraries, and accommodations. This can be a great advantage for those who want to explore off-the-beaten-path destinations or who have specific interests or requirements.
  • Control: FIT travelers have more control over their budget than those who take package tours. They can choose to stay in budget accommodations, cook their own meals, and use public transportation. This can save travelers a lot of money.
  • Personalization: FIT travelers can create a trip that is tailored to their own interests and needs. They can choose activities that they are interested in and visit destinations that they want to see. This can lead to a more enjoyable and memorable travel experience.

Challenges of FIT travel

There are also some challenges associated with FIT travel, including:

  • Planning: FIT travel can require a lot of planning, especially for those who are traveling to unfamiliar destinations. Travelers need to research their destinations, book their flights and accommodations, and arrange their transportation. This can be a time-consuming process.
  • Budgeting: FIT travelers need to be careful about their budget, as they are responsible for all of their own expenses. This can be a challenge, especially for those who are traveling on a tight budget.
  • Language barriers: FIT travelers may encounter language barriers when they travel to foreign countries. This can make it difficult to communicate with locals and get around.

Who is FIT travel for?

FIT travel is a good option for travelers who have the time and desire to plan their own trips. It is also a good option for travelers who want to have more control over their budget and who want to create a trip that is tailored to their own interests and needs.

Demographics of FIT travelers

FIT travelers come from all walks of life, but there are some common demographics that tend to be associated with FIT travel. These include:

  • Age: FIT travelers are typically between the ages of 25 and 44.
  • Income: FIT travelers typically have an annual income of more than $75,000.
  • Education: FIT travelers are typically well-educated, with a college degree or higher.
  • Occupation: FIT travelers are typically employed in professional or managerial positions.

Psychographics of FIT travelers

FIT travelers are typically motivated by a desire for adventure, exploration, and self-discovery. They are also interested in learning about new cultures and meeting new people.

Motivations for FIT travel

There are many reasons why people choose to travel independently. Some of the

What Does FIT Stand for in Travel?

FIT stands for “free independent traveler.” FIT travelers are those who plan and book their own trips, rather than relying on a travel agent or tour operator. This can be a great way to save money on your travels, but it also requires more planning and research on your part.

Benefits of Traveling as a FIT Traveler

There are many benefits to traveling as a FIT traveler, including:

  • Flexibility: You can choose your own destinations, activities, and transportation options. This gives you the freedom to create a trip that’s perfect for you.
  • Cost savings: You can often save money by booking your own flights, hotels, and activities.
  • Personalization: You can create a trip that’s tailored to your interests and budget.
  • Adventure: Traveling as a FIT traveler can be an adventure in itself. You’ll get to explore new places and meet new people.

Challenges of Traveling as a FIT Traveler

There are also some challenges to traveling as a FIT traveler, including:

  • Planning: It can take more time and effort to plan a FIT trip than it does to book a trip through a travel agent or tour operator.
  • Research: You need to do your research to make sure you’re choosing the right destinations, activities, and transportation options.
  • Risks: There are some risks associated with traveling independently, such as getting lost, getting sick, or having your luggage lost.

How to Plan a FIT Trip

If you’re thinking about traveling as a FIT traveler, here are a few tips to help you plan your trip:

  • Start planning early: The sooner you start planning your trip, the more time you’ll have to research your destinations, activities, and transportation options.
  • Set a budget: Before you start booking anything, decide how much you’re willing to spend on your trip. This will help you narrow down your options and make the most of your budget.
  • Do your research: The internet is a great resource for researching destinations, activities, and transportation options. Read travel blogs, guidebooks, and websites to get ideas for your trip.
  • Book your flights and accommodations in advance: If you’re traveling during peak season, it’s important to book your flights and accommodations in advance. This will help you avoid disappointment and get the best prices.
  • Get travel insurance: Travel insurance can protect you in case of unexpected expenses, such as medical bills, lost luggage, or canceled flights.
  • Stay safe: Be aware of your surroundings and take precautions to stay safe while traveling. This includes staying in well-lit areas, avoiding deserted places, and being aware of your belongings.

Resources for FIT Travelers

There are many resources available to help FIT travelers plan their trips. Here are a few of the best:

  • Online travel agencies: Online travel agencies (OTAs) like Expedia and Travelocity can help you book flights, hotels, and activities.
  • Travel blogs and websites: Travel blogs and websites can provide you with tips and advice on planning your trip. Some of the best travel blogs include The Blonde Abroad, Nomadic Matt, and Two Wandering Soles.
  • Travel guidebooks: Travel guidebooks can give you detailed information on destinations, activities, and transportation options. Some of the best travel guidebooks include Lonely Planet, Frommer’s, and Rick Steves.
  • Travel forums and communities: Travel forums and communities can be a great way to connect with other travelers and get advice on planning your trip. Some of the best travel forums and communities include TripAdvisor, Lonely Planet, and TravelPod.

Traveling as a FIT traveler can be a great way to save money, have a more personalized experience, and get an adventure in the process. By following these tips, you can plan a successful and enjoyable FIT trip.

What Does FIT Stand For In Travel?

FIT stands for “fully independent traveler.” FIT travelers plan and book their own trips, without the help of a travel agent. They typically have more flexibility and control over their itineraries than travelers who book packaged tours.

What Are the Benefits of Traveling as a FIT Traveler?

  • Flexibility: You can choose your own destinations, dates, and activities. You can also adjust your itinerary as needed.
  • Control: You have more control over your budget and your travel experience. You can choose to stay in budget accommodations or splurge on luxury hotels. You can also choose to eat at local restaurants or dine at fine-dining establishments.
  • Adventure: Traveling as a FIT traveler can be an adventure. You’ll meet new people, learn about new cultures, and see new things. You’ll also have the opportunity to explore off-the-beaten-path destinations.

What Are the Challenges of Traveling as a FIT Traveler?

  • Planning: It can be more challenging to plan a trip as a FIT traveler than it is to book a packaged tour. You’ll need to do your own research to find the best deals on flights, accommodations, and activities.
  • Budgeting: It’s important to set a budget before you start planning your trip. This will help you avoid overspending.
  • Language Barriers: If you’re traveling to a country where you don’t speak the language, you may have some difficulty communicating with locals. It’s a good idea to learn some basic phrases before you go.

How Can I Become a Better FIT Traveler?

There are a few things you can do to become a better FIT traveler, including:

  • Do your research: Before you book your trip, do your research to learn about the destination you’re visiting. This will help you make informed decisions about where to stay, what to see, and what to do.
  • Use a travel agent: If you’re not comfortable planning your own trip, you can use a travel agent to help you. A travel agent can help you find the best deals on flights, accommodations, and activities.
  • Stay organized: It’s important to stay organized when you’re traveling as a FIT traveler. This will help you avoid missing flights or getting lost.
  • Be flexible: Things don’t always go according to plan when you’re traveling. It’s important to be flexible and adaptable when things don’t go your way.

Traveling as a FIT traveler can be a rewarding experience. By doing your research, planning ahead, and staying organized, you can have a safe and enjoyable trip.

FIT travel stands for free independent traveler. FIT travelers are those who plan and book their own trips, without the help of a travel agent. They typically have a specific destination in mind, and they enjoy the freedom to choose their own activities and accommodations. FIT travel can be a great way to save money and have a more personalized experience. However, it can also be more challenging than booking a trip through a travel agent. It is important to do your research and plan your trip carefully in order to avoid any unexpected problems.

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What Is Foreign Independent Tourism Fit?

By Michael Ferguson

Foreign Independent Tourism (FIT) is a term that refers to individual travelers who plan and organize their own trips without the help of travel agents. FIT travelers are known for their independent spirit, desire for flexibility, and willingness to immerse themselves in local cultures. FIT travel can range from budget backpacking to luxury vacations, but what sets it apart from other forms of tourism is the level of personalization and freedom it offers.

Why Choose FIT Travel?

One of the main reasons why people choose FIT travel is because it allows them to create a trip that suits their individual preferences and interests. Unlike packaged tours, which often follow a set itinerary and schedule, FIT travel allows you to choose your own destinations, activities, and pace. With FIT travel, you are free to explore off-the-beaten-path destinations that might not be included in traditional tour packages.

The Benefits of FIT Travel

FIT travel has many benefits that make it an attractive option for adventurous travelers. Some of these benefits include:

  • Flexibility: With FIT travel, you have the freedom to create your own itinerary and make changes on the fly.
  • Personalization: You can tailor your trip to your own interests and preferences.
  • Immersion: FIT travel allows you to immerse yourself in local cultures and experience destinations like a local.
  • Budget-friendly: By planning your own trip, you can often save money on accommodation, transportation, and activities.

Tips for Planning Your Own FIT Trip

If you’re interested in planning your own FIT trip but aren’t sure where to start, here are some tips:

  • Research: Do your research on destinations, activities, and local customs before you go.
  • Book in Advance: To ensure availability and avoid last-minute stress, book your accommodations and transportation in advance.
  • Be Flexible: Be prepared to adjust your itinerary if necessary to accommodate unexpected changes or opportunities.
  • Stay Safe: Research potential safety concerns in advance and take appropriate precautions while traveling.

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Home > General Travel > How to Stay Fit While Traveling

How to Stay Fit While Traveling: 9 Tricks from Fit Travelers

Stay fit while traveling cover photo of Kim showing how it's done

Fitness habits tend to fly out the window (porthole, sunroof, whatever) while traveling, but with these nine tips for how to stay fit while traveling, there’s no need to leave your six-pack behind.

How can we be so sure?

Because we drink our own Kool-Aid (sugar-free, of course).

Kim and I use the following strategies to not only stay fit while traveling but also have better travel experiences in the process.

Chris and Kim looking fit in Namibia

How to Stay Fit While Traveling

1. get sweaty with others.

fit for travel fsme

Join Local Fitness Classes

From boot camps in Nairobi to CrossFit gyms in Mexico to jiu-jitsu classes in Panama City , Kim and I love finding local workouts to join. Not only does it help us stay fit while traveling, it’s a travel experience in itself.

We meet locals, discover new forms of exercise, and often visit parts of towns most tourists don’t.

Plus it’s often free ! 

Many of these classes and gyms let you do your first session without paying a dime .

2. Try Unusual Terrain-ing

stone training workout

Take Advantage of Unique Environments

Forget going to some soulless gym that’s no different than the one you use back home. Create an unforgettable workout by getting outside and taking advantage of the unique terrain of the place you’re visiting.

Some Examples From Our Own Travels

  • On Colombia’s Pacific Coast , we converted our hammock into a workout device.
  • In Lamu, Kenya we did sprints up and down the dunes and joined our new friends Awham and Captain Jawad for a swim to Manda Island.
  • On the vast tidal flats of Savary Island, BC we sprinted, threw rocks, and rolled logs.
  • In Northern Quebec, we walked along the bottom of a lake holding stones .
  • While staying at a luxurious villa in Phuket, Thailand we invented a refreshingly cool pool circuit workout. Watch the video below.

The opportunities for unusual terrain-ing to stay fit while traveling are as endless as the variety of geographies on this planet. See our comprehensive guide to natural outdoor workouts for ideas and tips.

3. Hard and Fast Rules

fit for travel fsme

Do High-Intensity, Low-Duration Workouts

To get and stay fit, more isn’t better.

Harder and faster is better.

In a 12-week study, world-renowned exercise physiologist Dr. Martin Gibala found that subjects who did three 20-second intervals of high-intensity training enjoyed the same health benefits as those who did 45 minutes of medium intensity continuous exercise.

In other words, if you go balls-to-the-wall, a 60-second exertion can provide the same health benefits as a 45-minute jog.

While one minute of exertion is surprisingly good for fitness, Gibala recommends 10 hard minutes (with 10 rest minutes in between) for maximal health benefits.

Example 20-Minute Workout

  • Warm-up with 3-5 minutes of moderate exercise such as jogging, bear crawls , skipping, or  slow burpees.
  • For 1 minute, do high intensity exercise as hard and fast as you can—burpees, mountain-climbers, stair runs, spinning. Anything. As hard and as fast as you can.
  • Rest for 1minute.
  • Repeat this 1 minute-on, 1 minute-off cycle nine more times.
  • Do some cool-down stretches.
  • Get back to traveling.

Exert yourself as much as possible during each interval. The harder you go, the more you benefit.

4. No Weights? No Worries

fit for travel fsme

Strength Train With Your Bodyweight (and Maybe your Buddy’s) 

Compliment your interval workouts with some pure strength training to stay fit while traveling and stay strong.

Not only do strong, lean muscles look good, but they burn extra calories and protect you from injury. But how do you find heavy enough weights when you’re on a remote beach or in a foreign city?

Easy. Look in the mirror. There in the reflection is one heavy-ass weight: 

No matter how strong you are, I guarantee there’s a bodyweight exercise for every muscle that will leave you hobbling for days (in a good way).

Not Heavy Enough For You?

If you don’t think you’re heavy enough to build strong muscles with bodyweight training, here are a few tips:

  • Do one leg or arm at a time. If you think one-armed pull-ups and elevated shrimp squats are too easy, join the circus because you’re a badass.
  • Use momentum to make things harder by doing explosive exercises like jumping or sprinting .  
  • Use your travel companion as extra weight. Do piggy-back sprints, have them sit on you while you do push-ups, or try these other partner exercises .

5. Eat As Much as You Want, Just Not Whenever You Want

my breakfast during my 3 day fast

Fast Intermittently

We’ve all heard a million times that diet is even more important than exercise.

That sucks for those of us who want to stay fit on the road.

Eating is arguably the best part of traveling. To not gorge on all the local treats would rob us of a big part of the travel experience. Without it, we might as well travel in virtual reality.

Luckily, we don’t need to compromise on what we eat to stay fit while traveling.We just need to compromise on when we eat.

If we limit ourselves to eating twice a day and spend some days fasting, we can stay fit no matter what we eat.

Why Eating Less Frequently Works

As Dr. Jason Fung explains in his book, The Complete Guide to Fasting , amazing things happen to our bodies when we limit our feeding frequency:

  • Our metabolism speeds up (i.e. we feel more energetic and burn even more calories).
  • Our hunger hormones die down, so our urges to snack dissipate.
  • We consume fewer calories overall. 
  • Our alertness peaks.
  • Our body gets used to burning fat for fuel.
  • We get sexy.

How to Break Your Addiction to Snacks

I used to think it would be impossible to cut down to two meals a day, and that I’d die if I went a whole day without eating. But, after learning some water fasting tips the hard way , now I can fast for five days with ease.

The trick was to start small, rewarding myself for cutting out snacks by eating bigger meals. In no time, it became easy. I was never hungry anymore and I saw results.

↳ More on this: A fun and childishly simple explanation of intermittent fasting and how it's like responding to emails.

6. Lace ‘Em Up

kim looking tired hiking up cerro las tres cruces medellin colombia

Explore More by Running and Hiking

At home, Kim and I aren’t avid hikers and we entirely avoid jogging.

On the road, we transform.

We actively seek out nearby trails, especially ones with views and waterfalls, and we run around cities aimlessly.

Often, this is how we make our favorite discoveries, stumbling upon unexpected scenes that we could have never found any other way.

An added bonus: it works up an appetite to eat more food.

  • As I mention in my 55-Item Fine-Tuned Packing List , get black runners so you can wear them when not exercising to save yourself having to pack an extra pair of shoes.
  • Make sure to pack your runners and a set of sports clothes in your carry-on, or wear them on board.
  • Download Maps.Me to find offline trail maps everywhere in the world. It’s free .
  • Download Google Maps for offline use . 

7. Don’t Break Your Budget if You Break Yourself

Chris' dad jumping off waterfall in Costa Rica, hopefully covered by travel insurance

Ensure You’re Insured

By staying fit you reduce your risk of injury and sickness, but you’re not invincible. So get travel insurance or global medical insurance.

It’s boring and can feel like a waste of money, but if something goes wrong, you don’t want an accident to hurt your finances even more than it hurt your body.

Your credit card might even cover you for up to a month. Be sure to check the policy. Or, if you’re Canadian like us, check out our research on the Best Credit Cards for International Travel .

How to Find the Best Plan for the Lowest Price

If you haven't left let, potentially save yourself a couple of hundred bucks by reading our 8 Simple Steps to Finding the Best Travel Insurance .

And if you've already left, see How to Find the Best Travel Insurance When Already Traveling .

8. Plan to Stay Fit While Traveling

Kim working out in Bangkok

Include Fitness in Your Planning

If you don’t plan to stay fit while traveling, you won’t.

It may sound stupidly obvious, but most of us rarely do it. We research activities, restaurants, and hotels in advance, but let our future selves sort out exercise when we get there.

And then, when the time comes to work out—surprise, surprise—our future selves decide they’re too busy or tired.

Do your future self a favor. Add exercise to your travel planning.

Search for outdoor workout areas and boot camps or classes you can join. If you can’t find any, look for parks or soccer fields for sprints and intervals, and stairwells to jump up and down.

Also, look for accommodations close to these areas and ask if they have blenders or cooking facilities so you can make healthy meals with delicious local produce.

Our Favorite Fitness Toys We Take Traveling

Triggerpoint foam roller

Foam Roller

Plantronics wireless headphones are perfect for getting fit while traveling.

Wireless Headphones

Spibelt phone pouch for exercise

Phone Pouch

Rubberbanz rubber band for exercising outdoors

Resistance Bands

  • Foam Roller . This isn't always packable when we're traveling carry-on. But if we travel for more than a few months, this is a necessity and helps our muscles recover quick.
  • Lacrosse ball . Feels so good for massaging sore muscles.
  • Elastic resistance bands. We always pack a couple of these. With a bit of creativity they can make any exercise harder or easer, they are useful for stretching, and we even use them as leashes to hold each other back when sprinting.
  • Phone Pouch. Holds my phone tight to my belly or small of my back when running around with it.
  • Wireless Headphones . Kim and I both have Plantronics Backbeat Fit wireless headphones. My pair just bit the dust after 3 years of heavy use and I've already ordered new ones.

relaxing in hammock

Don’t Stress About Staying Fit When Traveling

Exercise should relieve your stress, not increase it.

So if you’re feeling stressed and not at all in the mood for a workout, relax. Get a good night’s sleep, maybe do a bit of yoga or stretching, and don’t sweat it (literally) until the next day.

With long-haul flights, never-ending bus rides, line-ups, and cultural hurdles, traveling can be stressful enough as it is.

And give yourself credit for all the walking you’ll do. Walking on its own may not get you as ripped as Brad Pitt in Fight Club, but it’s better than the endless hours of sitting you probably do back home.

  • Avoid whirlwind trips where you’re changing hotels every day. Yes, travel time is precious and your bucket list is long, but from our experience, you’ll enjoy your trip more (and have more energy to stay fit) if you deeply explore specific destinations rather than trying to see everything .
  • Don’t sacrifice sleep . You might have more hours in the day if you sleep less, but they’ll be significantly worse and your fitness will deteriorate no matter how hard you exercise. If you don’t believe me, read the book Why We Sleep . It 100% convinced me to never sacrifice sleep again.

Freshen Your Approach to Fitness

For more fun but effective ways to stay fit while traveling, check out our pool , rock , and underwater workouts, and posts on why you should ditch the gym to work out outside and embrace the workout-life balance of a fitness lifestyle .

Read This Next:

Urban hike cover image of me and dad.

Urban Hiking: A Great Day in 56,973 Steps

How to travel cover image.

How to Travel To Change Who You Are

How many countries have you been to cover image of world map with pins.

How Many Countries Have You Been To? Maybe Stop Counting

best travel tips and tricks cover image of Kim in jeep with locals in Jordan

Travel Tips and Tricks: At Least One Will Enhance Your Trip

Disclosure: Whenever possible, we use links that earn us a cut if you pay for stuff we recommend. It costs you nothing, so we'd be crazy not to. Read our affiliate policy .

10 thoughts on “How to Stay Fit While Traveling: 9 Tricks from Fit Travelers”

Trying to stay fit while on vacation I think is one of the hardest things to do.

I feel you Megan. I guess it's a question of mentality. We don't find it hard at all because, as we wrote, exercise is one of the ways we have fun, explore, and meet people while traveling.

This depends on the type of vacation too. If you're moving from place to place every day, you're gonna be too exhausted to exercise, but we'd strongly advise against traveling that way anyways (as we wrote in our travel tips ).

I love doing pool training when traveling. It can get quite challenging.

I’m really surprised you didn’t mention putting on your runners and just getting out and exploring! It is the best way to see and experience a new place. You don’t have to be in an area that’s special… it’s all different and interesting. Running is optional but it does let you see more in less time. I think the best advice of all is ALWAYS HAVE YOUR RUNNERS IN YOUR CARRY ON!

Thanks Mary, a.k.a. Mom. You're right. It seems almost too obvious to me, but that could be because you trained me for it to be second nature. We'll add it to the post!

Some great tips for staying in shape while traveling, thank you!

Wonderful tips Chris! I agree you need to be flexible and take advantage of whatever you can get when traveling. A life saver could be if you could find an outdoor gym. You get enough equipment, plus the sun and the wind.

Agreed, Jacob. We're huge fans of outdoor workout / calisthenics areas and mentioned that briefly under tip #8.

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A fitness movement built around traveling.

Strength & Intelligence (1).jpg

Fittest Travel was started with one mission: to help you maintain a fitness routine away from home.

We consult with hotels on how to improve their fitness options and give travelers a resource to learn about the things they need to know to stay fit on the road.

Our Philosophy

Traveling is incredible. Whether it's for business or for pleasure, having the opportunity to see the world can be amazing.

Many travelers struggle with maintaining a fitness routine when they're away from home. The reality is that traveling and fitness are a perfect combination for physical and mental health.

Hotels have been upping their fitness game in recent years, with many offering new and innovative ways to help their guests stay fit and healthy.

But you can't always rely on there being a gym around when you're away from home.

Stick with us and we'll show you how you can stay fit while traveling. We're covering everything travelers need to know about fitness - from hotel gyms to hotel room workouts.

We believe that travel and fitness, when combined, can provide you with the ultimate sense of happiness. You can achieve physical and mental well-being through traveling and working out.


Fittest Travel is an affiliate partner of, allowing you to book rooms in hotels with the best gyms, at the best prices.

Fittest Travel’s Founder


Chris Castellano

Founder, Fittest Travel

Chris Castellano is a travel fitness specialist, the founder of Fittest Travel, and author of Fit For Travel: Your Guide to Losing Weight and Feeling Great While Traveling .

I have spent over 15 years training myself and others in functional fitness, bodyweight training, calisthenics, and Crossfit and started Fittest Travel to help travelers stay fit and healthy while on the road.

I served in the United States Army and Army Reserve from 2007 to 2022 and deployed with a reconnaissance platoon to Iraq in 2008 and 2009. I then worked on Wall Street before becoming an FDNY firefighter in 2016.

My other website : The Greenport Guide - covering everything great about Greenport, NY.

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Have you ever heard the term Fully Independent Traveler (FIT)?

Have you ever heard the term Fully Independent Traveler (FIT)?

What is a fully independent traveler?

What are other acceptable uses of this term , what are the features of fully independent travellers, is the fit segment interesting for tour operators and travel agencies, how can tour operators and travel agencies target fits.

Most people see emerging technologies as the number one factor that keeps transforming the tourism industry . While this is true, another important piece of the industry’s transformation puzzle is the travelers themselves . The needs of travelers are constantly shifting, and brand-new traveler segments emerge on a regular basis. 

One of these segments is fully independent travelers .

Tour operators and travel agencies see many opportunities in this segment of travelers . Should you focus on it as well or continue – business as usual? There is only one way to answer that question. You need more information on this type of traveler. Let’s see what a fully independent traveler is, what makes them unique, and work our way towards whether this is an exciting option for you and how to target independent travelers.

Fully independent travelers (or FIT) is a term that stems from independent foreign tours. The independent foreign tour is no longer used, and you will often find these tourists addressed as FITs. The F in this acronym stands for ‘fully.’ 

But what is a fully independent traveler then? While the concept of a traveler encompasses all kinds of travelers, it’s most often used to describe people who enjoy mass tourism and holiday packages . They don’t mind using the products that somebody else created for them, including complete travel and stay arrangements.

FITs are entirely different from your standard travelers . They don’t find mass tourism and holiday package offers particularly attractive. In fact, they are not interested in them at all. They have a more individualistic approach to travel.  

The definition of FIT goes like this:

“FIT is a person who travels completely independently and free of a tour operator and travel agency assistance.”

In other words, a FIT manages and arranges the itinerary according to their needs and preferences. It includes everything ranging from transportation arrangements and hotel stay to excursions and sightseeing. 

Today, FIT is a common term in the tourism industry. However, there are still many people that use it interchangeably with other terms. Different terms should not confuse you as they all refer to the same thing – a fully independent traveler. The best way to avoid confusion is to get familiar with all other terms commonly used in the industry.  

Here is a complete list of other acceptations of this term:

  • Free Independent Traveler;
  • Free Independent Tourist;
  • Fully Independent Traveler;
  • Foreign Independent Traveler;
  • Foreign Independent Tourist;
  • Frequent Independent Traveler;
  • Flexible Independent Travel;
  • Frequent Individual Traveler.

Now that you know what FIT is and all the synonyms you can potentially encounter online and when networking, let’s see what makes FITs unique. Or, in other words, the behavior, needs, expectations, and wants of FITs.

We’ve already established that FITs work out their itineraries independently and arrange travel plans to reflect their unique needs. They also don’t travel on group tours. But is there anything more that these travelers share in common? Below you can find all the features of FITs. 

Traveling solo, in couples, or in small intimate groups

When we talk about FITs, we refer to a group of travelers who are not interested in being part of big groups surrounded by people they don’t know. Many of them prefer to go on a trip by themselves . However, some of them don’t exclusively travel solo.

FITs are also known to travel in couples . They can also plan trips as a small group . These groups are intimate, meaning they usually include friends and family members. 

It’s a diverse demographic group

Usually, travelers with specific travel behavior, needs, and wants, are found in the same demographic segment based on age. This is not the case with FITs. It’s quite a diverse demographic group. Most often, the youngest members are millennials, but they are soon to be joined by Generation Z (those born in the mid and late 90s). 30% of Gen Z prefer to travel alone , and 20% of the same generation plan to go on a solo backpacking trip.

On the other side, you can also find retirees as one of the most active FITs. They are more experienced in travel and know what they want to get out of a trip. It enables them to custom-tailor their experiences and travel entirely independently.

They have above-average income

Another vital factor to consider is the income of travelers. Group travel packages and transportation are popular because they come with attractive price tags and are often found on first-minute and last-minute discounts. 

Independent travel is more expensive than standard travel. That’s why you will find most FITs to have above-average incomes. It enables them to afford more costly forms of travel, including accommodation and transportation. Most of the FITs have an income in the $150,000 range .

Planning their own unique itineraries

The travel products tour operators and travel agencies offer are often pre-built. Many travelers find this quite convenient as they need not worry about anything except packing their bags. With FITs, the situation is quite the opposite. They want to have complete control over the travel experience .

That’s why FITs plan their own unique itineraries . With so much information readily available online, FIT tourists can research destinations independently and plan their itineraries as if they are travel specialists. 

Booking their own transportation and accommodation

The standard tourist does like to explore various accommodation and transportation opportunities. However, their options are limited by the travel agency’s offer. Also, when choosing a travel agent, they often have to book transportation and accommodation through an agency.

FITs book transportation and accommodation on their own. There are many transportation companies and hotels that offer direct booking. It makes it easier for FITs to find what they need. They can book a flight at a specific time and make their independent travel dreams come true.

Exploring destinations on their own

Finally, traditional travel packages often include excursions and sightseeing tours at the destination. Tourists can pursue their own adventures outside these pre-arranged tours but often have very little time to do so.

Independent tourists don’t like to adapt to a schedule somebody else created for them. Instead, they want to explore destinations at their own pace. They are interested in various things, including culture, food, history, and architecture. And since they are independent, they can cherry-pick what the destination has to offer and make their trip one of a kind.

The FIT segment is quite interesting for tour operators and travel agencies as there is excellent potential to generate new revenue streams from FITs. The FIT markets throughout the world keep growing. The pre-pandemic figures indicate that it was growing 7.5% on average per year in western Europe . As the restrictions are being lifted, it’s expected that the market will continue to grow at least at the same pace.

Asian destinations, especially Chinese and Thailand localities, are quite popular among FITs. Many backpackers, the sub-segment of FITs, visited Bangkok, and 63% of them were from Europe alone . Hong Kong’s revenue from FIT products keeps on increasing. Over four years, it went up by more than 100%, from HK$2 billion to HK$5.6 billion . 

Fully Independent Traveler stats

According to the Solo Traveler Reader Survey , 70% of solo travelers preferred to stay completely independent while traveling. 40% spend $1,000 on average per week, excluding airfare, while 30% spend $2,500 on average per week. 

Another way to assess the potential value of catering to the needs of FITs is to take a look at the solo travel search trends on major search engines. Over two years, from 2020 to 2022, the number of searches for solo travel on Google quadrupled .

Post-pandemic travel trends are pretty interesting. Google trends indicate that solo travel is trending with a massive increase of over 700% . Booking also reports some interesting numbers. According to their report , the number of solo travelers increased by 100% after the pandemic.  

It appears that Australia is the number one option among FITs. According to the latest research , this continent is the most popular destination for international solo tourists. 

If you find these numbers compelling, you probably want to tap into the FIT market. But is there a way to do it? Tour operators and travel agencies have plenty of options for attracting more FITs and increasing their revenue.

Tour operators have to shift their approach when it comes to creating travel packages. Instead of creating complete packages, they need to focus more on single niche experiences before selling them to consumers and travel agents. Here are some tips tour operators can follow when including culture, food, history, nature, and architecture-related products in their offer:

  • Focus on smaller products – instead of creating A-Z experiences, focus on creating single products to attract FITs;
  • Choose quality before quantity – when creating products, be mindful of the value the travel experience delivers instead of simply following the “the more, the better” rule;
  • Include optional local tour guides – make tour guides optional, as FITs often prefer to explore destinations alone without a guide . Keeping it as an option will enable you to attract also FITs that want to learn something from a local guide;
  • Include products for solo, couple, and small group travel – FITs love to travel either solo or in small groups; keep this in mind when creating products;
  • Diversify offer – don’t base your products on just one type of experience; diversify your offer by creating culture, architecture, nature, history, and food-oriented products.

When it comes to travel agencies, the most important thing they can do to target FITs is to drop their pre-planned travel itineraries. But before you can implement this strategy, you need to align with tour operators that offer agencies to hand-pick products. 

Since travel agencies are the storefront travelers often explore before booking a trip, you would also need to revisit your website . Most importantly, you must create and deliver a new interface enabling FITs to interact with the products in your listings.

For instance, you can create an itinerary builder and connect it with your product database. It will enable FITs to use it whenever they need to create a specialized itinerary that reflects their unique needs. 

Furthermore, you should make your offers more attractive by optimizing costs. Offering affordable booking opportunities to FITs while still being able to remain profitable can be challenging. That’s where platforms such as Hotelmize can help you out. It will help you take advantage of booking price volatility and enable you to offer products at competitive prices.

Finally, you should optimize your marketing strategies to consider the needs, wants, and preferences of FITs . For instance, you can revise your SEO strategy to target FIT-related keywords in your blog posts and product descriptions. 

PPC marketing is also an option because it allows you to target specific keywords and appear in relevant search results. You can extend your marketing efforts to social media platforms as well. Don’t forget that many FITs are tech-savvy and like to spend time on social media. 

Some platforms, such as Facebook, already have targeting filters in the “People Traveling to This Location” category to help you reach FITs, including:

  • Fresh arrivals from the airport;
  • Travelers who are interested in a specific characteristic of a city;
  • Newly engaged and newlywed couples;
  • Birthday celebrators;
  • Parents who are traveling with kids in a location.

FITs are travelers who value independence above everything else. They include people of all ages with above-average income who prefer to create their own itineraries, book transport, and accommodation on their own, and explore destinations solo or in small groups. 

Given that the FIT market looks healthy and keeps growing, tour operators and travel agencies are becoming more interested in it with every passing year. If you want to tap into this market, the strategies we’ve outlined will help you target FITs.

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Cristóbal Reali, VP of Global Sales at Mize, with over 20 years of experience, has led high-performance teams in major companies in the tourism industry, as well as in the public sector. He has successfully undertaken ventures, including a DMO and technology transformation consulting. In his role at Mize, he stands out not only for his analytical and strategic ability but also for effective leadership. He speaks English, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian. He holds a degree in Economics from UBA, complementing his professional training at Harvard Business School Online.

Mize is the leading hotel booking optimization solution in the world. With over 170 partners using our fintech products, Mize creates new extra profit for the hotel booking industry using its fully automated proprietary technology and has generated hundreds of millions of dollars in revenue across its suite of products for its partners. Mize was founded in 2016 with its headquarters in Tel Aviv and offices worldwide.

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What is Fit Travel?

What is a Fit Travel

If you’re planning a vacation, you’re probably wondering, FIT stands for “fit for travel”. – it’s independent travel which means you’re booking your flights, hotels, and activities. As a FIT, you’ll have complete freedom over your itinerary. And cannot receive a refund if you miss an important event or flight. Fit travellers often prefer to book their flights, if a flight is delayed or an event requires them to change their itinerary Because they’re less likely to lose money.

the new Chinese travellers drove it, the ‘one child’ generation. The first generation in China had all their resources devoted to education, and the ‘one child’ generation has grown up with significant disposable income and unprecedented opportunities. FIT travellers can primarily explore a destination independently, and the internet and smartphones aid them. The FIT concept is transforming the way people travel.

FIT refers to a class of independent travellers who plan and arrange their trips and do so at their own pace. Single traveller, a couple, or a family do This type of travel. FIT travellers also prefer to travel alone or in small groups rather than joining a group. A FIT traveller’s itinerary may resemble a package. But the traveller customizes the entire experience.

Independent Travel

Independent travel is more expensive than organized group travel, but it’s often well worth it. FIT travellers are more likely to enjoy the local food, architecture, history, and culture while on a trip than other tourists. These travellers prefer to experience culture by following their path. Many FIT travellers don’t want the stress of being confined to a group and they are independent. They’re also less likely to be rushed, independent travel is less enjoyable and rewarding than

When choosing between FIT and GIT package tours, several things to consider. FIT tours are often small groups with fewer people. Since they require more independent travel, they tend to be more secure and have more amenities. You’ll have better accommodations and food facilities than a GIT tour. However, you should consider the number of travellers on your tour before selecting the type of package to travel with. You might want to stick to the GIT tour if you’re travelling in a big group.

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Fit For Travel

Health certificates and recovery letters for your trip..

Are you in need of a health certificate (fit to travel certificate or recovery letter) for your journey? We take care of it for you.

About Fit For Travel

Fit For Travel issues Fit To Travel certificates and recovery letters to anyone in need of one.

There are countries that require such a certificate - besides a negative PCR test - in order to be allowed to enter. For some countries a PCR test is not required for their own residents. In such cases a "fit to travel" certificate will be sufficient in order to travel. In the Netherlands unfortunately, a physician is not allowed to issue health certificates for their own patients.

In other cases a recovery letter is needed. We issue those as well (based on a positive test result)

We take care of your certificate

It is possible that after filling in the online questionnaire, you still need a (possible virtual) consultation, before a certificate is issued.

Applying for a Fit to Travel Certificate

Applying for a fit to travel certificate is easy. Read below what steps you should take. For questions, please contact us .


Fill in the online questionnaire with a few medical questions. After this you can pay immediately.

A physician checks your answers and decides whether a consultation is needed and if a certificate is issued.

Certificate via email

The day before your departure, you will receive your certificate via email. You can print it and take it with you.

A Fit For Travel certificate or recovery letter costs €40,- including taxes.

In case you have any questions, remarks or concerns about Fit For Travel, please contact us via [email protected] or +31 20 210 1431 .

Address Wim Meilinkhof 1 1187 TP Amstelveen

CoC 27376527

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+31 20 210 1431

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About Fit 4 Adventure

Fit 4 Adventure plans active vacations. ‍ Think one-of-a-kind experiences in spectacular locations where you travel with people who enjoy a physically challenging trip...but also appreciate a comfy place to stay and yummy meal (often home-cooked) at the end of an epic day outside. We love all things active & outdoors ... running, hiking, yoga, kayaking & canoeing, snow skiing, snow shoeing, cycling, scuba diving & snorkeling.   Join us! ​

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Fit 4 Adventure helps you explore the world, while meeting like-minded fitness enthusiasts who share your passion for one-of-a-kind experiences. From cycling in Spain to skiing in Colorado, our itineraries are equal parts fitness and fun. Fit 4 Adventure also works with groups looking for custom holidays. With us, you’re not simply booking a trip — you’re signing up for an adventure.

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  • About the Handbook

Vaccination for international travellers

Ensure that travellers are up to date with routine vaccines. Also consider other vaccines based on travel itinerary, activities and risk of disease exposure.

Recently added

This page was added on  09 June 2018 .

Updates made

This page was updated on 23 October 2023 .  View history of updates

Millions of Australians travel overseas every year. More than half of these trips are to destinations other than New Zealand, North America and Europe. 1

This page helps with making decisions about travel vaccines. Also check the disease-specific chapters in this Handbook for details about specific vaccines.

See also Infographic. Vaccination for international travellers .

Health risks of overseas travel

Health risks associated with international travel include exposure to:

  • infective agents
  • altitude and temperature extremes
  • other physical, psychological and environmental hazards
  • poor-quality or limited access to clean water, shelter, hygiene and sanitation facilities, and health and medical care

The level of health risks depends on factors such as:

  • the traveller’s underlying physical and mental health and physiological state
  • the itinerary and activities undertaken
  • the duration of exposure to various hazards during travel

Travellers at increased risk of serious travel-associated infections include:

  • young children and infants
  • pregnant women
  • people with underlying medical conditions, especially immunocompromising conditions due to disease or medical treatment
  • people spending extended periods in multiple regions with poor resources or in remote areas
  • people participating in events where large numbers of people will gather, such as major sporting, cultural, social or religious events
  • migrant families travelling back to their region of origin to visit friends and relatives

Those travelling to visit friends and relatives are more likely to: 2

  • have closer contact with local populations
  • stay in remote or rural areas
  • consume higher-risk food and beverages

Those travelling to visit friends and relatives are less likely to: 2,3

  • recognise the health risks associated with travelling
  • seek pre-travel health advice
  • obtain the recommended vaccines or prophylaxis

Common infections acquired by travellers

Exposure to infectious diseases is one of the many health hazards of international travel. Some of these diseases are vaccine preventable. Although some of these diseases are present in Australia, the risk of acquiring them overseas may be higher because of:

  • higher disease incidence in other countries
  • increased risk of exposure from participating in certain activities while travelling

Foodborne and waterborne infections

It is common for travellers to ingest contaminated food or beverages, resulting in an illness. 4-6  Practicing safe eating and drinking habits is essential to minimise the risk of contracting food and waterborne diseases while travelling. These include treating water or only drinking bottled water, avoiding undercooked meat, and avoiding raw fruit and vegetables (unless they can be peeled or washed in safe water prior to eating). Most infections are diarrhoeal diseases due to enteric pathogens, but some are due to extra-intestinal microorganisms, such as hepatitis A virus and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (causing typhoid).

Vaccines are available against hepatitis A, typhoid and cholera.

Vector-borne infections

Insect-borne — especially mosquito-borne — infections, such as malaria and dengue, are important causes of fever in Australian travellers returning from endemic areas, particularly Southeast Asia and Oceania. 4,6

A dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) is available for the prevention of secondary dengue infections (not primary prevention of initial dengue infection ) in select individuals. See Clinical advice: ATAGI statement on use of Dengvaxia® for Australians .

Japanese encephalitis occurs throughout much of Asia and the Western Pacific region, including eastern Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. 7 Yellow fever occurs only in parts of Africa and South America, 8 and tick-borne encephalitis occurs in parts of Europe and Asia. 9

Vaccines are available against Japanese encephalitis , yellow fever and tick-borne encephalitis .

Some other vector-borne diseases and parasitic (including protozoal and helminthic) diseases are also important for international travellers. Some are preventable through appropriate barrier precautions and chemoprophylaxis (for example, malaria). 9

Aerosol-borne infections

Vaccine-preventable infections transmitted by aerosols and/or droplets include: 9

  • influenza (the most common vaccine-preventable infection among travellers) 10
  • meningococcal disease
  • varicella (chickenpox)

The incidence of measles and mumps is higher in many overseas countries, including some developed countries, than in Australia.

Tuberculosis is a rare infection in travellers. 11 Expatriates who live in endemic areas for a long time are more likely to acquire tuberculosis than short-term visitors. 12

Vaccines are available against all of these diseases.

Bloodborne and sexually transmitted infections

Some Australian travellers may be at risk from bloodborne and sexually transmissible infections, such as chlamydia, gonorrhoea, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV. In some areas, healthcare workers using non-sterile medical equipment or other poor infection control practices may transmit these viruses and other bloodborne agents.

Vaccines are available against hepatitis B.

Exotic infectious agents

Travellers may be exposed to a variety of other exotic infections, such as:

  • rabies from bites or scratches from rabid dogs, bats and other mammals in many countries
  • schistosomiasis from exposure to water infested with the parasites, especially in Africa
  • leptospirosis through activities such as rafting or wading in contaminated streams

Of these diseases, vaccines are available only against rabies.

Recommending travel vaccines

Although recommending appropriate vaccines is important, it is not the only part of a pre-travel medical consultation. Travel vaccines — those relevant for travelling — include all relevant vaccines, not just the ones that prevent diseases that most commonly occur overseas.

Do not recommend a vaccine based only on the destination country, because there is no single ‘correct’ list of vaccines for travel to any particular country.

There are 3 categories of travel vaccines:

  • routinely recommended vaccines (not specific to travelling overseas)
  • selected vaccines based on travel itinerary, activities and likely risk of disease exposure
  • vaccines required by the International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR) or for entry into specific countries

Questions for a pre-travel medical consultation

During a pre-travel medical consultation, ask questions about the traveller’s:

  • personal information, including age and whether they are pregnant or planning pregnancy
  • underlying medical conditions, particularly immunocompromising conditions, and current medicines
  • vaccination history (including adverse events following immunisation) and allergy history
  • purpose of travel and intended activities, especially those associated with various environmental risks and hazards
  • plans for travel insurance

Also ask about their itinerary in detail, including:

  • date of departure and time available for vaccinations
  • specific localities and routes
  • rural versus urban stay
  • duration of stay
  • likely access to health care and other services
  • likelihood of changing the planned itinerary

This information helps to tailor recommendations about preventive vaccination or chemoprophylaxis for exposure risks during the proposed trip. It also allows the clinician to advise about other appropriate preventive health measures (for example, food and water precautions, avoiding bites from mosquitoes or other arthropods) and about managing possible health conditions during travel.

Organisational requirements for vaccination

Some overseas organisations, such as schools, colleges and universities, require evidence of vaccination or immunity against some vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles and meningococcal disease. Consider these requirements when planning and scheduling vaccines before departure.

Routinely recommended vaccines (not specific to travelling overseas)

Vaccinate all prospective travellers according to the recommended vaccination schedule appropriate for their age, underlying health conditions, occupation and lifestyle. Vaccines might include, for example, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for an older person, or hepatitis B vaccine for a first aid officer. 

Also ensure that all children are vaccinated according to the National Immunisation Program schedule. In exceptional circumstances, give the National Immunisation Program vaccines at the minimum age rather than the recommended age (see Table. Minimum acceptable age for the 1st dose of scheduled vaccines in infants in special circumstances ). Children vaccinated using the minimum age rather than the recommended age may need extra vaccine doses to ensure adequate protection. Observe the minimum interval requirements between doses (see Table. Minimum acceptable dose intervals for children <10 years of age ). The chances of being exposed to some diseases, such as measles and mumps, may be greater during overseas travel, even to other developed countries.

For some itineraries, it may be appropriate for the traveller to receive some booster doses earlier than the routine recommended time. An example may be diphtheria-tetanus booster.

Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis

Vaccinate adult travellers against tetanus before departure, particularly if:

  • their risk of sustaining a tetanus-prone wound is high
  • there could be delays in accessing health services where they can receive tetanus toxoid boosters safely, if required

Offer dTpa vaccine during a pre-travel consultation if the traveller has never received a dose of dTpa . This provides protection against pertussis (see Pertussis ). 

For high-risk travel, consider giving a booster dose of either dTpa or dT vaccine if more than 5 years have passed (see Tetanus ).

Hepatitis B

Most Australian children born since 2000 have been vaccinated against hepatitis B under the National Immunisation Program or state and territory school-based vaccination programs.

Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for long-term or frequent travellers to regions of intermediate or high endemicity of hepatitis B, including:

  • Central and South America

This is because travellers may be exposed to hepatitis B virus through bloodborne routes (including during emergency medical or dental procedures) or sexual routes. According to 1 survey, about half of Australian travellers who spent at least 3 nights in Southeast or East Asia participated in at least 1 activity that had a risk of hepatitis B transmission. 13

See also Hepatitis B .

Influenza and pneumococcal disease

Older travellers and those with any relevant underlying medical or behavioural risk factors should receive pneumococcal vaccine. See Pneumococcal disease for more details.

Consider influenza vaccine for all travellers, especially if they are travelling to a region during its influenza season. Influenza vaccine is particularly relevant if:

  • there is an influenza epidemic at the traveller’s destination
  • the person is travelling in a large tourist group, especially one that includes older people
  • the person is travelling on cruises, where people are relatively confined for days to weeks

See also Influenza. 

Measles, mumps and rubella

Inadequately vaccinated young adult travellers are responsible for most current measles outbreaks in Australia. This occurs when they acquire the infection overseas and bring it back to Australia. Some countries, regions or communities — including developed countries — have a higher incidence of measles and mumps than Australia. 9

Australians born during or since 1966 who have not received the recommended 2 doses of MMR (measles-mumps-rubella)–containing vaccines are recommended to receive MMR vaccine before travelling. This also applies to infants 6–12 months old travelling to areas with measles outbreaks or where measles is endemic . The exception is for pregnant women, because MMR is a live vaccine and is contraindicated in pregnancy. 

People born before 1966 do not need to receive measles-containing vaccine (unless serological evidence indicates that they are not immune). This is because circulating measles virus and disease were prevalent before 1966, so most people would have acquired immunity from natural infection .

However, confirmed cases of measles have occurred in people born before 1966. 14 If in doubt about a person’s immunity, it may be faster and easier to vaccinate the person than conduct serological testing . See Serological testing for immunity to measles . 

See also Measles . 

Unvaccinated travellers are recommended to receive varicella vaccine if they either:

  • have not had clinical disease, or
  • have an uncertain history of clinical disease and serology shows a lack of immunity 

The exception is for pregnant women, because varicella vaccine is a live vaccine and is contraindicated in pregnancy.

See also Varicella .

Meningococcal disease

Vaccination against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, Y and B is recommended for certain age and population groups who are at increased risk of meningococcal disease.

In addition, MenACWY (quadrivalent meningococcal) vaccine is recommended for people who are:

  • planning travel to, or living in, parts of the world where epidemics of serogroup A, C, W-135 or Y meningococcal disease occur, particularly the ‘meningitis belt’ of sub-Saharan Africa 15
  • planning travel to mass gatherings, such as pilgrims travelling to the Hajj in Saudi Arabia

Seek up-to-date epidemiological information to determine whether a traveller needs meningococcal vaccination. See Accessing up-to-date travel information.

The Saudi Arabian authorities require that all pilgrims travelling to Mecca (for the Hajj or Umra) have evidence of recent vaccination with the quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine. 16  See Requirements for travellers to Mecca and Accessing up-to-date travel information .

See also Meningococcal disease .


Ensure that all travellers are age-appropriately vaccinated against polio (see Poliomyelitis ).

If the person is travelling to a country where wild poliovirus is still circulating, they should receive inactivated poliovirus ( IPV ) vaccine if they have not completed a 3-dose primary course of any polio vaccine. Travellers who have completed the primary course should receive a single booster dose.

The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Polio Eradication Initiative website website has an up-to-date list of polio-affected countries.

Documented evidence of polio vaccination is not routinely required for travellers under the International Health Regulations. However, documented evidence of vaccination may be temporarily required according to WHO recommendations in response to new evidence of the spread of wild poliovirus (see Vaccines required by the International Health Regulations or for entry into specific countries and Documentation and certificates ).

International polio epidemiology and associated travel requirements can change. Check the Australian Government Department of Health website for current recommendations for Australian travellers .

Ensure that all travellers are age-appropriately vaccinated against COVID-19. Foreign governments may require evidence of COVID-19 vaccination before a traveller is allowed to enter. The Australian-issued International COVID-19 Vaccination Certificate is a secure way to prove COVID-19 vaccination history that has been developed to meet agreed international travel standards. Parents and carers of children <14 years of age, adolescents ≥14 years of age and adults can get a copy of their COVID-19 vaccination certificate at any time:

  • using their Medicare online account through myGov
  • through the Medicare Express Plus mobile app
  • by calling 1800 653 809 (free call)

See also COVID-19 .

Vaccines based on travel itinerary, activities and likely risk of disease exposure

Use a risk assessment approach when recommending travel vaccines. Weigh the potential risks of disease exposure and protective benefits from vaccination against potential adverse effects, and the non-financial and financial costs of vaccination.

Prioritise vaccines for diseases that are:

  • common and of significant impact, such as influenza and hepatitis A
  • less common, but have severe potential adverse outcomes, such as Japanese encephalitis and rabies

Consider booster doses, where appropriate (see disease-specific chapters in this Handbook for recommendations). If the person is departing for travel soon, consider an accelerated schedule, if appropriate, such as for hepatitis B vaccine or the combination hepatitis A-hepatitis B vaccine (see Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B ). Although immunity may be established sooner with the accelerated schedule, people who receive an accelerated schedule need another dose about a year later to complete the course and ensure long-term protection.

Most travellers do not need cholera vaccine. 16,17  The risk of a traveller acquiring cholera is very low if they avoid contaminated food and water.

No country requires travellers to have certification of cholera vaccination. No country has official entry requirements for cholera vaccination

See also Cholera .

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for all travellers ≥1 year of age travelling to moderately or highly endemic countries (including all developing countries). The exceptions are people who have evidence of natural immunity after previous infection .

Normal human immunoglobulin is no longer used to protect travellers against hepatitis A.

See also Hepatitis A .

Japanese encephalitis

While now considered an emerging disease in Australia, Japanese Encephalitis is more likely in travellers to endemic regions overseas. 18 Japanese encephalitis ( JE ) vaccine is recommended for travellers spending a month or more in endemic areas in Asia, Papua New Guinea or the outer islands of Torres Strait during the JE virus transmission season.

Consider JE vaccination for shorter-term travellers, particularly if:

  • travel is during the wet season 
  • travel may be repeated
  • the person will spend a lot of time outdoors 
  • the person’s accommodation has no air-conditioning, screens or bed nets

Check a reputable source before travel for information about JE virus activity — for example, Health Information for International Travel (the ‘Yellow Book’) . 19

A traveller’s overall risk of acquiring JE in these JE - endemic countries is likely to be low (<1 case per 1 million travellers). Determine the specific risk according to the: 17

  • season of travel
  • regions visited 
  • duration of travel
  • extent of outdoor activity
  • extent to which the person avoids mosquito bites 

See also Japanese encephalitis .

Before travel to rabies- endemic regions, advise people about:

  • the risk of rabies infection
  • avoiding close contact with wild, stray and domestic animals — especially dogs, cats, monkeys and bats 
  • the importance of appropriate immediate wound care of all animal bites and scratches 

See also Rabies and other lyssaviruses, including Australian bat lyssavirus .

Recommendations for rabies vaccination as pre-exposure prophylaxis

When deciding whether to give a pre-travel prophylactic rabies vaccination, assess the:

  • likelihood of exposure to potentially rabid animals
  • access to appropriate health care and availability of post-exposure prophylaxis , including rabies immunoglobulin , should there be an at-risk exposure
  • timeliness of access to health care after exposure

Use a lower threshold for recommending rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis for children travelling to endemic areas.

Benefits of vaccination as pre-exposure prophylaxis

Pre-travel rabies vaccination:

  • ensures that the traveller has received a safe and efficacious vaccine
  • simplifies the management of a subsequent exposure because the person will need fewer doses of vaccine
  • means that rabies immunoglobulin — which is often extremely expensive, and difficult or even impossible to obtain in many developing countries — is not needed
  • reduces the urgency of post-exposure prophylaxis

Tick-borne encephalitis

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is caused by a tick-borne RNA flavivirus. The disease may involve the central nervous system. TBE is prevalent in parts of central and northern European temperate regions, and across northern Asia. Travellers are at risk when hiking or camping in forested areas in endemic regions during the summer months.

Safe and effective vaccines are available. Vaccination is recommended only for people with a high risk of exposure.

TBE vaccine is not registered in Australia, but a small stock of vaccine may be available for use under the Special Access Scheme .


Vaccination with BCG (bacille Calmette–Guérin) vaccine is generally recommended for tuberculin-negative children <5 years of age who will be staying in high-risk countries for an extended period (3 months or longer).

Vaccinating older children and adults appears to be less beneficial. However, consider vaccinating tuberculin-negative children aged ≥5 years but <16 years who may be living or travelling for long periods in high-risk countries.

A high-risk country is one that has a tuberculosis incidence of >40 per 100,000 population.

For travellers who need BCG vaccine, consider the following precautions when scheduling their vaccination visits:

  • If possible, give BCG vaccine at least 3 months before the person will arrive in an endemic area.
  • Give other live viral vaccines (for example, MMR , varicella, yellow fever) at the same time or with a minimum 4-week interval after BCG vaccination.
  • A tuberculin skin test (TST; Mantoux), performed by trained and accredited healthcare practitioners, is recommended before receiving BCG vaccine for all individuals (except infants aged <6 months).
  • People may suppress reactions to tuberculin for 4–6 weeks after viral infections or live viral vaccines, particularly measles infection and measles-containing vaccines.

State and territory tuberculosis services can provide tuberculin skin tests and BCG vaccine.

See also Tuberculosis .

Typhoid vaccine may be recommended for travellers ≥2 years of age travelling to endemic regions, including: 

  • the Indian subcontinent
  • most Southeast Asian countries 
  • several South Pacific nations, including Papua New Guinea 

This advice is also relevant for those travelling to endemic regions to visit friends and relatives.

Inactivated parenteral and live oral typhoid vaccine formulations are available.

See also Typhoid fever .

Yellow fever

Yellow fever vaccine is recommended for all people ≥9 months of age travelling to, or living in, an area with a risk of yellow fever virus transmission. 20

To minimise the risk of introducing yellow fever, some countries require documented evidence of yellow fever vaccination for entry, in line with the International Health Regulations (see Vaccines required by the International Health Regulations or for entry into specific countries ).

When assessing the need for yellow fever vaccination, consider:

  • the risk of the person being infected with yellow fever virus
  • country entry requirements
  • individual factors such as age, pregnancy and underlying medical conditions 

Vaccination is generally not recommended for travel to areas with a low probability of yellow fever virus exposure — that is: 

  • where human yellow fever cases have never been reported 
  • where evidence suggests only low levels of yellow fever virus transmission in the past 

However, consider vaccination for a small subset of travellers to lower-risk areas who are at increased risk of exposure to mosquitoes or who are unable to avoid mosquito bites. 20

People aged ≥60 years are at increased risk of severe adverse events after primary yellow fever vaccination. Weigh the adverse effects of vaccinating people in this age group against the potential for yellow fever virus exposure and, in turn, the benefits of vaccination. 17

See also Yellow fever .

Booster doses

Most people do not need a booster dose of yellow fever vaccine. A single dose induces protective antibody levels that last for many decades. However, certain people are recommended to receive a booster if their last dose was more than 10 years ago and they are at ongoing risk of yellow fever virus infection . See Yellow fever .

Vaccines required by the International Health Regulations or for entry into specific countries

Yellow fever requirements.

The International Health Regulations require yellow fever vaccination for travelling in certain circumstances. This is to:

  • protect travellers who are likely to be exposed to yellow fever 
  • stop importation of the virus into countries that have the relevant vectors (see Yellow fever ).

Some countries may require documented evidence of yellow fever vaccination as a condition of entry or exit (see Planning and documenting vaccines ). This includes countries that do not currently have yellow fever circulating.

Australia’s yellow fever travel requirements are detailed in the Australian Government Department of Health’s yellow fever fact sheet .

Contact the relevant embassies or consulates in Australia to confirm the entry requirements for yellow fever vaccination for the countries a traveller intends to enter or transit through. 

Requirements for travellers to Mecca

Each year, Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Health publishes the requirements and recommendations for entry visas for travellers on pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj and Umra). 16

For pilgrims travelling directly from Australia, only evidence of MenACWY vaccination is currently mandatory. However, check the current requirements when advising prospective Hajj and Umra pilgrims (see Meningococcal disease and Accessing up-to-date travel information ).

Temporary requirements

The International Health Regulations may temporarily introduce requirements for other vaccine-preventable diseases in response to changes in disease epidemiology that are of international health concern. An example is for polio vaccination.

Because country vaccination requirements are subject to change at any time, confirm all current vaccination requirements for the countries a traveller intends to enter or transit through before travel. See Poliomyelitis and Accessing up-to-date travel information .

Planning and documenting vaccines

Ideally, start vaccination courses early enough before departure to allow:

  • monitoring of any possible adverse events 
  • time for adequate immunity to develop

Requirements for multiple vaccines

A traveller may need multiple vaccines before they depart. Apply the standard recommendations and precautions when giving multiple vaccines (see Administration of vaccines ).

A traveller may need more than 1 clinic visit if they need multiple vaccines or doses (for example, rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis or hepatitis B vaccine). Pay special attention to scheduling of these visits, and consider:

  • dose interval precautions (for example, for multiple live vaccines)
  • requirements for pre-vaccination tests (for example, tuberculin skin test)
  • potential interference by some antimalarials, if relevant (for example, rabies vaccine)

Documentation and certificates

It is important to document travel vaccines: 

  • in the clinic’s record
  • in the traveller’s record that they can carry with them 
  • on the Australian Immunisation Register

The record should also include all the other routinely recommended vaccines that the traveller has ever received. 

For yellow fever vaccination, a traveller needs to have an International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP), which only Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres can provide under the International Health Regulations (see Yellow fever ). 

Travellers may also need an ICVP for other vaccine-preventable diseases, such as polio, based on temporary recommendations.

See also Accessing up-to-date travel information .

Vaccinating travellers with special risk factors

See Vaccination for women who are planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding , Vaccination for people who are immunocompromised and the disease-specific chapters in this Handbook for recommendations for travellers who are pregnant or immunocompromised.

Accessing up-to-date travel information

International travellers’ health risks constantly change. Up-to-date information, and knowledge of the changing epidemiology and current outbreaks of infectious and emerging diseases are essential. Reliable online information sources include:

  • World Health Organization (WHO) for disease outbreak news, and its Travel and health section for specific advice on travel and health, including travel vaccination recommendations
  • Travelers’ health , United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  • Travel health information , Australian Government Department of Health
  • Smartraveller , the Australian Government’s travel advisory and consular information service, which provides up-to-date advice about health, safety and other risks of specific destinations for Australian travellers

The following resources have comprehensive technical advice on international travel and health, including vaccination:

  • the latest edition of WHO’s International travel and health
  • the CDC’s Health Information for International Travel (the ‘Yellow Book’)
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. 3401.0 – Overseas arrivals and departures, Australia, Mar 2018 (accessed May 2018). 
  • Paudel P, Raina C, Zwar N, et al. Risk activities and pre-travel health seeking practices of notified cases of imported infectious diseases in Australia. Journal of Travel Medicine 2017;24(5):tax044.
  • Heywood AE, Watkins RE, Iamsirithaworn S, Nilvarangkul K, MacIntyre CR. A cross-sectional study of pre-travel health-seeking practices among travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports. BMC Public Health 2012;12:321.
  • Chen LH, Leder K, Barbre KA, et al. Business travel-associated illness: a GeoSentinel analysis. Journal of Travel Medicine 2018;25.
  • Angelo KM, Kozarsky PE, Ryan ET, Chen LH, Sotir MJ. What proportion of international travellers acquire a travel-related illness? A review of the literature. Journal of Travel Medicine 2017;24.
  • Freedman DO, Weld LH, Kozarsky PE, et al. Spectrum of disease and relation to place of exposure among ill returned travelers. New England Journal of Medicine 2006;354:119-30.
  • Halstead SB, Hills SL, Dubischar K. Japanese encephalitis vaccines. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM, eds. Plotkin's vaccines. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018.
  • Staples JE , Monath TP, Gershman MD, Barrett AD. Yellow fever vaccines. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, Edwards KM, eds. Plotkin's vaccines. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018.
  • World Health Organization (WHO). Chapter 6: Vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccines . In: International travel and health. Geneva: WHO; 2017. 
  • Steffen R. Travel vaccine preventable diseases-updated logarithmic scale with monthly incidence rates. Journal of Travel Medicine 2018;25.
  • Denholm JT, Thevarajan I. Tuberculosis and the traveller: evaluating and reducing risk through travel consultation. Journal of Travel Medicine 2016;23.
  • Lachish T, Tenenboim S, Schwartz E. 35 - Humanitarian Aid Workers. In: Keystone JS, Kozarsky PE, Connor BA, et al., eds. Travel Medicine (Fourth Edition). London: Elsevier; 2019. (Accessed 6 July 2023).
  • Leggat PA, Zwar NA, Hudson BJ. Hepatitis B risks and immunisation coverage amongst Australians travelling to Southeast Asia and East Asia. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease 2009;7:344-9.
  • Winkler NE, Dey A, Quinn HE, et al. Australian vaccine preventable disease epidemiological review series: measles, 2012-2019. Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2022;46.
  • World Health Organization (WHO). Epidemic meningitis control in countries of the African meningitis belt, 2017. Weekly Epidemiological Record 2018;93:173-84.
  • World Health Organization (WHO). International travel and health: health conditions for travellers to Saudi Arabia for the pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) . 2017 (accessed May 2018). 
  • Freedman DO, Chen LH. Vaccines for International Travel. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2019;94:2314-39.
  • Furuya-Kanamori L, Gyawali N, Mills DJ, et al. The Emergence of Japanese Encephalitis in Australia and the Implications for a Vaccination Strategy. Trop Med Infect Dis 2022;7.
  • Hills SL, Rabe IB, Fischer M. Infectious diseases related to travel: Japanese encephalitis . In: CDC yellow book 2018: health information for international travel. New York: Oxford University Press; 2017. 
  • World Health Organization (WHO). International travel and health (accessed Apr 2018). 

Page history

Minor updates to clinical guidance around routinely recommended vaccines (not specific to travelling overseas), including the addition of advice regarding COVID-19.

Editorial update to reflect changes to pneumococcal vaccine recommendations for older adults and people with medical risk factors.

Guidance on vaccination of travellers against measles, mumps and rubella updated to reflect advice in the Measles chapter.

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The Department of Health and Aged Care acknowledges First Nations peoples as the Traditional Owners of Country throughout Australia, and their continuing connection to land, sea and community. We pay our respects to them and their cultures, and to all Elders both past and present.

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FIT Travel: All About Independence

fit for travel fsme

TripSavvy /  Wenjia Tang 

Originally, the acronym "FIT" stood for "foreign independent tour," but now it is most commonly used to describe a fully independent traveler or tourist. You might also see the term "FIT" used to mean "free independent traveler ," "frequent independent traveler," or "foreign independent traveler." All of these definitions share a keyword and concept: independent. These travelers almost always design their own itineraries and arrange their own travel plans—FITs do not travel with group tours or according to any schedule imposed by others.

FITs Shun Group Travel

Tourists who fit the definition of FITs usually travel solo ; in couples; or in small, intimate groups of friends or family. They range anywhere in age from millennials to retirees , but generally, they have above-average incomes that allow for independent travel, which can be more expensive than traveling with an organized group. But what all FITs share, by definition, is a desire to avoid mass tourism in favor of an individualized, independent approach. They tend to want to explore their chosen destinations on their own and at their own pace with an emphasis on enjoying the local food, architecture, history, and culture.

FITs Plan Their Own Trips

The huge rise in availability of all aspects of travel planning online, including even websites devoted to helping you learn how to plan travel , has made it easier for independent travelers to plan their own specialized itineraries and book their own transportation and accommodations. This diminishes their need for traditional travel agents, and this also makes packaged trips have less appeal. As a result, FITs are a quickly growing segment of the tourist market. First-hand travel information about destinations , transportation arrangements such as train and ​ plane tickets , and hotel reservations worldwide are available at the click of a mouse for independent travelers.

FITs Sometimes Use Travel Agents

Although the "I" in FITs means independent, it sometimes could be advantageous to consult with travel professionals who are experienced in providing services to those who want to plan their own trips, especially for more exotic destinations. Doing so does not necessarily mean that independent tourists have to relinquish their, well, independence. As a result of the rise in popularity of independent and solo travel, travel professionals are adjusting their services accordingly. There are now agencies that specialize in customized trips for individuals  and small groups who want to choose their destinations and plan their own itineraries.

The traveling is still independent, but the planning benefits from the professional expertise and inside knowledge of a travel agent . And of course, it takes much less time than searching for all the information you need on your own. 

An agent who specializes in FIT travel can help you plan custom sightseeing with a private tour guide, arrange a private cooking class or a wine-tasting tour , and even hook you up with knowledgeable local representatives. The agent will help you plan a personalized travel experience based on the input you provide. If you wish, an agent can often arrange to have someone meet you at your destination and take you to your hotel. Travel professionals are especially helpful in finding non-traditional or out-of-the-way accommodations that do not advertise on the internet, such as villas, farmhouses , inns, and family-run ​bed-and-breakfasts. 

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  1. Fit for Travel: die Reise App

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  2. FSME-Vorsorge auf Reisen

    fit for travel fsme

  3. Travel and Holiday Health Advice

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  4. Internetseiten für Ihre Patienten

    fit for travel fsme

  5. Fit for Travel: 5 Portable Fitness Essentials!

    fit for travel fsme

  6. 6 Exercises To Stay Fit While Traveling During The Holidays!

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  1. Fit for Travel

    This is a group for people who love to travel and experience the world first hand. While challenging yourself to get out of your comfort zone and...

  2. Home

    fitfortravel is a public access website provided by the NHS (Scotland). It gives travel health information for people travelling abroad from the UK. Remember that you should always discuss your particular needs with your own GP or Practice Nurse. The website is compiled by the Travel and International Health Team at Health Protection Scotland (HPS).

  3. United States of America

    Altitude and Travel. This country has either areas with high altitude (2400m or more) or/and areas with very high altitude (3658m or more). Travellers who may go into areas of high altitude should take care to avoid ill effects of being at altitude including Acute Mountain Sickness, a potentially life-threatening condition.

  4. Tick-borne Encephalitis

    TBE is a viral infection that can affect the brain and central nervous system. It is transmitted to humans from infected tick bites. Occasionally, you can become infected by drinking unpasteurised milk from infected animals, especially goats. The ticks that transmit TBE can be found in Europe and parts of Russia, China, Japan and South Korea.

  5. Fit For Travel

    If you're here you're basically a badass who wants to or is currently up-leveling every area of life and is all about treating your body as well as you can while utilizing that health to travel absolutely anywhere your heart desires! If you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go far, go together. Let's go far together, girl! PS if you've ...

  6. Impfempfehlungen für 350 Reiseziele, Infos zum Coronavirus, Malaria

    Reisemedizinische Infos für 350 Reiseziele mit Impfempfehlungen, Infos zum Coronavirus und zur aktuellen Malariasituation, Gesundheitsrisiken im Land, Outbreak-Meldungen an Ihrem Reiseziel, Einreisebestimmungen und weitere Infos

  7. Fit 4 Travel

    For The Love of Wellness, Fitness & Travel. Welcome to the world of Fit4Travel, where your sole focus can be on forging connections, expressing your passions, and enjoy the adventure. We simplify the process of planning wellness retreats, making it effortless to bring. transformative experiences to life, worldwide.

  8. Understanding FIT in the Travel Industry

    When planning FIT travel, individuals or groups typically focus on the following key elements: Transportation: FIT travelers have the flexibility to choose their modes of transportation, whether it's by air, train, car rental, or other means. Accommodation: They can select the type of lodging that suits their preferences and budget, ranging ...

  9. What is FIT And GIT in The Tourism

    GIT (Group Inclusive Tour) definition: In GIT, you join other tourists for a Group Inclusive Tour and don't have to worry about your accommodation, transportation, and other parts of your trip. A group of a minimum of 10 people travels together. These people can be related or non-related and usually book on the same travel arrangements.

  10. Fit for Travel

    Welcome to FFT! We are currently traveling physical therapists who like to explore the outdoors. Allie likes to run a lot and Colton likes to fish a lot. and we do both together... A LOT. We hope ...

  11. Fit for Travel

    Fit for Travel. 148 likes. Fit for travel is the launch of a world first service, helping retirees get ready for their dream hol. Log In. Fit for Travel. 148 likes • 150 followers. Posts. About. Photos. Videos. More. Posts. About. Photos. Videos. Fit for Travel.

  12. What Does FIT Stand For in Travel? (The Ultimate Guide)

    FIT stands for "fully independent travel," and it means that you're in charge of planning and booking your own trip. This gives you the freedom to choose your own destinations, activities, and accommodations, and it can be a great way to save money.

  13. Fit for Travel

    Login. The app that empowers passengers to keep each other safe, for total peace-of-mind.

  14. What Is Foreign Independent Tourism Fit?

    Foreign Independent Tourism (FIT) is a term that refers to individual travelers who plan and organize their own trips without the help of travel agents. FIT travelers are known for their independent spirit, desire for flexibility, and willingness to immerse themselves in local cultures. FIT travel can range from budget backpacking to luxury ...

  15. Fitness Programs; Adventure Travel; Fit for Trips

    Fit for Trips' easy to use step-by-step fitness programs will help ensure - regardless of your fitness level - that you are ready to enjoy any kind of adventure activity. Get started now by choosing the fitness program that is right for you. VALUE Programs. Single-Day Non Technical Excursion or Easy Adventure Vacation.

  16. How to Stay Fit While Traveling: 9 Tips from Fit Travelers

    For 1 minute, do high intensity exercise as hard and fast as you can—burpees, mountain-climbers, stair runs, spinning. Anything. As hard and as fast as you can. Rest for 1minute. Repeat this 1 minute-on, 1 minute-off cycle nine more times. Do some cool-down stretches. Get back to traveling.

  17. fit for travel fsme

    Wellness + Fitness + Travel. South Africa. For The Love Of Wellness, Fitness & Travel. Fit4Travel is a comprehensive platform that simplifies retreat planning for wellness leaders

  18. About

    Chris Castellano is a travel fitness specialist, the founder of Fittest Travel, and author of Fit For Travel: Your Guide to Losing Weight and Feeling Great While Traveling.. I have spent over 15 years training myself and others in functional fitness, bodyweight training, calisthenics, and Crossfit and started Fittest Travel to help travelers stay fit and healthy while on the road.

  19. Have you ever heard the term Fully Independent Traveler (FIT)?

    Over four years, it went up by more than 100%, from HK$2 billion to HK$5.6 billion. According to the Solo Traveler Reader Survey, 70% of solo travelers preferred to stay completely independent while traveling. 40% spend $1,000 on average per week, excluding airfare, while 30% spend $2,500 on average per week.

  20. What is Fit Travel?

    FIT refers to a class of independent travellers who plan and arrange their trips and do so at their own pace. Single traveller, a couple, or a family do This type of travel. FIT travellers also prefer to travel alone or in small groups rather than joining a group. A FIT traveller's itinerary may resemble a package.

  21. Fit For Travel

    In case you have any questions, remarks or concerns about Fit For Travel, please contact us via [email protected] or +31 20 210 1431. Address Wim Meilinkhof 1 1187 TP Amstelveen

  22. Fit 4 Adventure

    Fit 4 Adventure plans active vacations. ‍ Think one-of-a-kind experiences in spectacular locations where you travel with people who enjoy a physically challenging trip...but also appreciate a comfy place to stay and yummy meal (often home-cooked) at the end of an epic day outside. We love all things active & outdoors ... running, hiking, yoga, kayaking & canoeing, snow skiing, snow shoeing ...

  23. Vaccination for international travellers

    Offer dTpa vaccine during a pre-travel consultation if the traveller has never received a dose of dTpa. This provides protection against pertussis (see Pertussis). For high-risk travel, consider giving a booster dose of either dTpa or dT vaccine if more than 5 years have passed (see Tetanus). Hepatitis B

  24. Fit for Travel

    Protecting the health, safety and wellbeing of your passengers has never been more important. Every organisation has a duty of care to ensure their environment is safe and free from unnecessary risks. The Fit for Travel app puts digital PPE in the hands of passengers, workers and visitors - keeping your facilities safe. See how it works.

  25. FIT Travel: All About Independence

    Originally, the acronym "FIT" stood for "foreign independent tour," but now it is most commonly used to describe a fully independent traveler or tourist. You might also see the term "FIT" used to mean "free independent traveler ," "frequent independent traveler," or "foreign independent traveler." All of these definitions share a keyword and ...